The Vision of Leadership

Introduction

This blog is made to refer my leadership style through my leadership role model, leadership reflection along with the feedback and the enhancement I have from time to time while working in the hospitality industry.

Leader inspiration and aspiration

Leadership vision is a form of understanding what matters the most, what we want to achieve in life and who is our role model in leadership. The vision must have come from each person’s past, current and future position, because it represents who and what we want to become, in order to help us make positive changes in the future (Friedman 2008).

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Indonesia’s current President Joko Widodo (Jokowi), is a great example of democratic leader, Jokowi, are diminishing the stereotype of most Indonesian leaders through a humble life style, closer relationship with his cabinet and people, working directly in the field and communicate with locals instead of working from the comfort of his own office.  He is also oppressing our nations rooted issue, religion and ethnicity, by improving nations tolerance through many national’s event and campaign (Chandran 2016).

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Chef Curtis Duffy, has become one aspiring authoritative leader in the culinary world, as he has been working for 2 coercive and pace setting leaders in his life before, Curtis then learned that the leadership style brings a negative impact within the team, and it has inspired him to be nothing like it. He is famous for his approach in the kitchen, where his subordinates are encouraged to create and make their own innovation in the kitchen, unlike most chefs where staff were just used as “cooking tools” (Four 2016).

I found both of the leaders above are role models in setting an example through their ethical and inspiring approach, which make them perceived as great and effective leaders through their achievement and accomplishments.

Leadership Reflection

During my 4-year time working in the hospitality Industry, my leadership style has been developed from time to time, adapting through the external factors (working ambiance, stress level, etc) and internal factors – self-development through staff feedback below (Goleman 2000):

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As I started my career, I learned and developed my leadership approach as I was working with German people and understand it thoroughly through Hofstede framework below:

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The power distance factors are high with 78 in Indonesia, showing where subordinate are most likely hiding negative feedback and expected to be told what to do. Where in German the power distance is low, showing that there is an equal right in between the power holders. In which, I found to be correct, previously my German boss expected that everyone has their own initiative and ownership, however, as I was working with fellow Indonesians, they have a very low level of initiative and waited to be directed and routinely controlled from time to time (Hofstede 2017).

Leadership Feedback

 When I used to work for a five-star European hotel in Jakarta, my bosses expect me to work like them, within the Pacesetting style, I had a high pressure environment to keep everything in line and was responsible for quick progress, even if I had to push and shoved my colleague just to get the job done in certain ways, in which I found insupportable sometimes, knowing that everyone has their own pace and way of doing things (Goleman 2000).

However, once I worked for a local company, my CEO gave me feedback that I should coach and develop my team with a more diplomatic style and treat them as my family, as most Indonesians  need guidance, direction and control in which I found aligned with my own values, and as I am being more comfortable in leading them democratically, my team also became stronger from time to time (Goleman 2000).

Leadership Enhancement

 My leadership style is in line with, Chartered Management Institute (CMI) theory that the best leadership methods are vary depending on personal characteristic and working environments (CMI 2013). However, I wish to develop more people skills in order the become more communicative, and accommodating for my future team, in which I have had to start implementing it during my time in my MBA year and measuring my success through my grades and feedback from my fellow team mates.

Reference:

Chandran, N., (2016) Indonesian President Jokowi celebrates 2 years in office with an eye on 2019 vote[Online] available from: <http://www.cnbc.com/2016/10/18/indonesian-president-jokowi-celebrates-2-years-in-office-with-an-eye-on-2019-vote.html&gt; [20 March 2016]

CMI (2013) Understanding Management Styles Checklist [Online] Available from:  <https://www.managers.org.uk/~/media/Files/Campus%20CMI/Checklists%20First%20Management%20Role/Understanding%20management%20styles.ashx> [24 March 2016]

Emont, J., (2016) Visionary or Cautious Reformer? <http://time.com/4416354/indonesia-joko-jokowi-widodo-terrorism-lgbt-economy/&gt; [ 24 March 2017]

Friedman, S., (2008) Define Your Personal Leadership Vision [Online] Available From: <20https://hbr.org/2008/08/title> [ 24 March 2017]

Four (2016) Chef: Curtis Duffy [Online] Available From: <http://www.four-magazine.com/articles/2403/curtis-duffy&gt; [ 24 March 2017]

Goleman, D., (2000) Leadership That Gets Results [online] available from <http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=12d48180-c933-43f7-ada1-8420517180ed%40sessionmgr4002&hid=4109&gt;> [23 March 2016]

Hofstede, G., (2017) Indonesia [online] Available at: <https://geert-hofstede.com/indonesia.html> [12 March 2017]

TI (2016) Corruption Perception Index 2015 http://www.ti.or.id/index.php/publication/2016/01/27/corruption-perceptions-index-2015

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Most effective Leadership & Management Styles & approaches

Introduction

There are many existing questions regarding the most effective leadership style/ management approach for boosting staffs work efficiencies. These debates have been existed since 1950’s where the leadership tendencies and methods have been moved from “strictly in command and in control” to “democratically supportive and consultative” (CMI 2013).

The Similarities & Differences Between Management & Leadership

While leadership and management roles are bound with people, communication and cooperation, both also has been actively translated as an approach that firms or organisation used in order to achieve their common objective (Ratcliffe 2013).

However, the key in understanding management and leadership, are laid in their differences says John Kotter professor of leadership at Harvard University. “Management are processes that used in order to maintain the function of organisation – where the process is involved, planning, budgeting, consulting and measuring KPI” (Ratcliffe 2013). In the other hand, Leadership is about directing people towards a vision, in which involved inspiration, communication and motivation (Smith 2008)

Therefore, Newstrom & Davis, believes that leadership style is well-mixed in between personal manner, their way of giving direction abilities to executed plan and motivating others (Clark 2004).

Classifications of leadership style include:

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In the other hand, Daniel Goleman are creating lists of six styles of leadership, analysed through the emotional intelligence of 300,000 executives, with details of which leadership behaviour may yield a positive result. Each of the styles has a different impact in the working environment, team or division, the style and a brief explanation are mention below (Goleman 2000):

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My conclusion for the Goleman theory is, if we take 4 spoonsful of authoritative, then 2 spoonsful of affiliative, democratic and coaching and then a tea spoon of coercive and pacesetting leadership, just to add a bit flavour, then we may earn an excellent leader “recipe” of an enduring leadership success in life.

In 2009 Mintzberg, also argue that partnership style as symbiotic relationship methods are important to be discover by managers in order to tailor the best approaches depending on task and the people involved where the style and context does equally matter, because leaders may make or break their team, therefore below are some lists of suggestions on how to build effective management, (CMI 2013 and Llopis 2012).

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The most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates

Among many researchers, I was intrigued by Tannenbaum and Schmidt theory and approach on how one could manage their subordinates better, by looking further into the extent of how a manager applies levels of control and authority, also into what extent that subordinates have their liberty to act or take decision on their own will, in which explains in seven styles, The Tannenbaum Schmidt Leadership Continuum (CMI 2013):

The Tannenbaum Schmidt Leadership Continuum

According to the theory, the leader needs to understand their subordinate, in order to give an equal amount of authority and freedom of creativity & in decision making, in order to create and boost effectivities in management by retaining responsibilities.

Moreover, I found that The Chartered Management Institute (CMI) statement in “the best methods are vary depending on the personal characteristic and the working environments” are the highly reasonable and applicable, because leadership is part of personal reflection / manner in which also build through external factors, working environment, organisational value, etc. (CMI 2013). I also believe that great leadership is built through experience and hardship, they also flourish through inspirational and motivational acts.

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(Goleman 2000):

Thus, Winston Churchill and Bill Gates Both of the great leader above showing that people are not born as a leader but they are built to be one.

“Continuous effort – not strength or intelligence – is the key to unlocking our potential.” – Winston Churchill

“As we look ahead into the next century, leaders will be those who empower others.” – Bill Gates

Out of the biggest proposition, Authoritative style of leadership I found are the most positive, because as subordinate I want to be embrace and motivate, while be given space to improve myself by living examples.

Conclusion

Leadership is far different from management, one could be a manager whilst failing in becoming a great leader. Leadership is about appreciating, motivating and inspiring our peers.

Therefore, in order to become a good manager, we are encouraged to develop our selves first, knowing our surrounding and knowing what leadership style that we have, then we will be able to give a fair judgement in our teams capabilities and push it towards the organisational vision accordingly.

Reference

Chandran, N., (2016) Indonesian President Jokowi celebrates 2 years in office with an eye on 2019 vote[Online] available from:<http://www.cnbc.com/2016/10/18/indonesian-president-jokowi-celebrates-2-years-in-office-with-an-eye-on-2019-vote.html&gt; [20 March 2016]

Clark, D., (2004). Concepts of leadership[Online] Available from: <http://nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcon.html> [13 March 2016]

CMI (2013) Understanding Management Styles Checklist [Online] Available from:  <https://www.managers.org.uk/~/media/Files/Campus%20CMI/Checklists%20First%20Management%20Role/Understanding%20management%20styles.ashx> [14 March 2016]

Goleman, D., (2000) Leadership That Get Result [Online] Available from:  <https://hbr.org/2000/03/leadership-that-gets-results&gt; [14 March 2016]

Goleman, D., (2000) Leadership That Gets Results [online] available from <http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=12d48180-c933-43f7-ada1-8420517180ed%40sessionmgr4002&hid=4109&gt;> [13 March 2016]

 

 

 

The Importance of Managing a Diverse Team in the Hospitality Industry

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Introduction

“Cultural Diversity is an essential form of nature’s biodiversity of collective mixture through personal and organisational characteristics, values, beliefs, experiences and behaviours” (Kalargyrou, V. and Costen W., 2017).

Cultural diversity is a common ground for the hospitality industries, as in order to provide an exceptional and personalize service for individuals of different nationalities and cultures, Hotels hired many talents from different countries, culture and languages in order to comprehend the interpersonal interactions (Grobelna, A., 2015). The industry then faced many challenges in managing a diverse team. Therefore, a future discussion regarding the challenge that will be explained further in this blog.

What are the Challenges of Managing a Diverse Team?

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In practice, the International expansion of Hospitality Multinationals Firms has become a common practice and approach in order to strengthen company market share (Sunghyup, V., et al. 2013).

The Accor Hotel Groups, for Instance, as an international hotel operation, the brand has properties in many cities around the globe, they employed over 180,000 workers in more than 92 countries and across 5 continents (Grobelna, A., 2015).

Consequently, expanding to a different country may cause some distortion for the individual or organisation. Most talent in the industry experiencing cultural diversity problems by misunderstanding each other due to a value or cultural differences and language barriers problems (Grobelna, A., 2015).

Therefore, the measurement of international expansion success is looking through the companies’ ability to manage, harness and develop their competitive advantages upon the cultural characteristic from different location through proper interpersonal training and providing language courses and culture introduction (Sunghyup, V., et al. 2013).

What is the importance of embracing diversity in team?

In this era of globalizations, the success of one company or leader could also be measured through their competences on managing and building diversity in their team thoroughly. Diversity is beyond than just a “nice-to-have” feature in the hospitality industry but it is a strategic tactic (Green, K., et al. 2003).

Intercultural soft-skills, are more than just communicating with colleagues and understanding the needs of international guests, as there are many benefits in developing diversity in the work field, such as (Iguchi 2016):

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It is understandable that each person’s experience towards cultural diversity are difference, the benefits may not be following the team automatically. Therefore, managers are needed to create a strategic approach in managing the diversity, the approach will be explained in the subtopic below.

How to manage the ’Diverse Team’ in Hospitality Industry?

Unlike any other industries, the product of the hospitality industry is in intangible forms, where customer buying the service and the experience from the industry. Therefore, human resources are the core player in the industry by providing high service quality, where their performances are to be measured by customer loyalty and satisfaction (Madera, J., Et al 2017). Therefore, in order to properly manage the diverse team, managers need to understand the culture differences in between their staffs through the Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions tools, because Geert Hofstede has been analysing large data from IBM, covering research in 78 countries and has been focusing in comprehensive study of how values in the workplace influenced by culture solving (Hofstede 2017).

An example below will be shown based on my working experience with a team mainly a mixed of Indonesian and Germans nationalities:

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The result in Uncertainty Avoidance is showed that Indonesia has a lower preference in avoiding the uncertainty than the Germans, the study finds that Indonesiands are having a high tendency of maintaining work place harmony even through suppressing our own feelings. Moreover, we are also seen being uncomfortable in confrontation and handling conflict through a direct communication in order to resolve problems, Indonesians are mentioned to prefer using intermediary or the third party to help them with their problems/ conflicts solving (Hofstede 2017).

Conclusion

In the hospitality industries, the organisations and individuals that have a good understanding regarding the importance of culture difference will manage a superior job handling in diverse properties by developing and harnessing cultural values within their associates Sunghyup, V., et al. (2013). Therefore, they may also enhance a competitive advantage against organisations and individuals that do not have or develop the skills yet.

Reference:

Green, K., et al. (2003), Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges, and the Required Managerial Tools [online] Available at: <https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/HR/HR02200.pdf&gt; [03 March 2017]

Grobelna, A., (2015) Intercultural Challenges Facing the Hospitality Industry. Implica ons for Educa on and Hospitality Management[online] Available at:<https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/joim.2015.7.issue-3/joim-2015-0023/joim-2015-0023.pdf&gt; Journal of Intercultural Management Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 101–117 [12 March 2017]

Hofstede, G., (2017) Indonesia [online] Available at: <https://geert-hofstede.com/indonesia.html> [12 March 2017]

Iguchi, Y., (2016), The benefits of cultural diversity in hospitality[online] Available at < http://ehotelier.com/insights/2016/04/19/benefits-cultural-diversity-hospitality/>%5B03 March]

Kalargyrou, V. and Costen W., (2017) Diversity management research in hospitality and tourism: past, present and future[online] Available at <http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-09-2015-0470 > International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 29 Iss 1 pp. 68 – 114 [03 March 2017]

Sunghyup, V., et al. (2013) The influences of collectivism in hospitality work settings [online] Available at: < http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-07-2012-0127 > International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 25 Iss 6 pp. 844 – 864 [12 March 2017]
Madera, J., Et al (2017) Strategic human resources management research in hospitality and tourism A review of current literature and suggestions for the future [online] Available at: < http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-02-2016-0051 > International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 29 Iss 1 pp. 48 – 67[12 March 2017]

Walter, E., (2014) Reaping The Benefits Of Diversity For Modern Business Innovation [online] Available at: <https://www.forbes.com/sites/ekaterinawalter/2014/01/14/reaping-the-benefits-of-diversity-for-modern-business-innovation/#19d2732a8f67&gt; [03 March 2017]

How to Manage the inevitable, CHANGE.

Leadership & Change 

Mullin’s in Change

Change is inevitable and continuous, as the circumstances and challenges will keep changing from time to time, organisations and individuals won’t be able to escape from it.  Mullins (2013) argue that change is a fact of life and embracing changes are dependent on peoples personality, where some are holding change as triumph, while the others prefer to be in the status que and resisting it, leaving the management with little options in managing the constant pulse of changes. Moreover, Toffler also stated, that most of the time people becoming very resistance and uneasy to change because people have a suspicion that changes will be uncontrollable, in which developing the state of ‘future shock’ in physiological dimension (Mullins 2013). However, Burnes (2004) believe that manager and leader are managerial authority in which will be able to enhance and initiate changes, through significant systems and approachable methods.

The Process of “Change Management”

Following Burnes (2004) in his theory of changes, I also believe that in order to overcome the change resistance in organisations, managers and leaders hold a key role in the process. According to, Acas Organisation (2014) that manager or leader could not be too prescriptive in order to manage the change effectively, because following Mullins (2013) That change is based on someones personality, changes found to be personal and may effect the way someone feels – emotionally, mentally and physically, leaders must be able to comprehend it by creating the vision, leading consulting and engage the team, followed by excellent communication throughout the process and staffs emotional journey (Acas 2014).

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(Acas 2014)

Management also must provide schematic principles for the changing-process in order to provide guideline for their team members, as mentioned below

(Jones, Aguirre and Calderone 2004):

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Moreover, I found that Lewin change models will be able to help lots of managers to overcome and to enhance the chance process, because the applicable and simple framework that he introduced are easy to implement, while promoting effective communication and empowerment:

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Even though, changes may an unsettling process for most, changes in management are mostly suggested, as it is one of very important key element in order to boost or maintain individual or organisational success (Acas 2014). Two out of many positive impacts of changes are; Company Economic Survival (company needs to renew or develop new product/ new market in order to sustain their level of competitiveness), Employee Wellbeing and Engagement (improving employee creativities and adaptabilities). Thus, every company shall embrace changes while supporting their subordinate through the process (Acas 2014).

Hospitality Industry and Changes

Different from most, the hospitality Industry is a very dynamic industry, where each hotel company are not just suggested but encourage from time to time, following the current travel, tourism and business trends (Madera, J., Et al 2017).

Following to that many corporations are relentlessly developing their newest policy in the company, for Instance, Kempinski Hotel Group, as the oldest independent hotel brand from Europe, the company knew that they should make a few new adjustments to the company culture and policy. In 2009 the company then invent and renowned the concept of guest service, through “Lady in Red” (LIR), their iconic brand ambassador (Kempinski 2017 and Csidei 2013).

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The company using slow changes progression as the transition period by giving each hotel properties a year of training to adjust to the concept with local culture, so then each hotel has time to incorporate their local culture with the new hotel culture, in order to ensure a smooth transition in between. Moreover, as a result the company then gain 27% raise in their Asia – Pacific market share by 2011 (Kempinski 2017).

Unlike Kempinski, Ritz Carlton Hotel Group was losing their market share, while receiving a USD 300,000 of fines from Chinese government, for raising their VAT taxes without following the local taxation law, as the result of their hotel policy misconception, as the brand still following the American taxation regulation instead of the local law  (Reuter 2016).

Conclusion

Changes were never being psychologically, physically and mentally easy either for institutions or individuals, however in order to stay competitive in the industry changes are encourage, moreover in the very dynamic industry such as, hospitality (Acas 2014 and Madera, J., Et al 2017). Following Kempinski’s example, a well timely calculate approach by paying special attention and support to employees are one of managements efforts that could be considered as the key success of managing changes.

Reference:

Acas (2014) How to Manage Change [Online] Available from:  < http://www.acas.org.uk/media/pdf/k/m/Acas-How-to-manage-change-advisory-booklet.pdf&gt; [16 March 2017]

Burnes, B., (2004) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics, 4th Edn, Harlow: Pearson

Csidei, B., (2013) Essentially Kempinski [Online] Available from: <http://www.abcnmedia.com/meetings/Hungary2014/presentations/04%20Balasz%20Csidei%20-%20Service%20Equalizer%20-%20Budapest%202014%20Kempinski.pdf&gt; [15 March 2017]

Jones, J., Aguirre, D. and Calderone. M., (2014) 10 Principles of Change Management [Online] Available from:  < http://www.strategy-business.com/article/rr00006?gko=643d0 > [16 March 2017]

Kempinski (2017) Lady in Red [Online] Available from: <https://www.kempinski.com/en/hotels/about-us/lady-in-red/&gt; [15 March 2017]

Madera, J., Et al (2017) Strategic human resources management research in hospitality and tourism A review of current literature and suggestions for the future [online] Available at: < http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-02-2016-0051 > International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 29 Iss 1 pp. 48 – 67[12 March 2017]

Mullins, L., (2013) Management and Organisational Behaviour, 11th Edn. Harlow: Pearson

Reuters (2016) China Fines Ritz Carlton for raising VAT Prices [Online] Available from: <http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-tax-reform-idUSKCN1090TH&gt; [21 March 2017]

Leadership and Ethics in Business

Introduction

One of the growing interests in many business organizations for these past years is how to redirecting existing leadership towards a more ethical and normative ways, without creating a conflict of interest within the organization primary objective. The Enron crisis in 2001, had burst off bubbles of many companies, to calling in for a more ethical behavior and transparency towards business. Within this blog hopefully you may then understanding the need and importance of business ethics within the organization (Bachmann 2017 and Mendonca and Kanugo 2007).

Ethics in Leadership

Ethics is a fundamental form of value, norm and morality, which sourced from one culture background. Ethics may also refer to the perception of good and bad, which lead to subfields of Hedonism, Epicureanism, etc (Bachmann 2017). Murphy and Laczniak believe that normative ethical theory can be seen through two approaches which is Deontological and Teleological (Hunt and Vitell 2006) :

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Deontology; means duty based ethics, which people are obligated to become morally mindful with others. (Fryer 2011).

In example of Deontology:

The Toyata Case in 2010 (Reuters 2010)

toy

Toyota were received Lawsuit ignored the safety information and 3,600 consumer complaints

with delayed investigation on their faulty breaks and dysfunctional sticking pedals by put customer life in danger and covering hundreds of accident cases which involving rollovers and deaths. Following the formal law suit and drastic devaluation of their shares, Toyota President, Akio Toyoda, finally apologizing for the safety issue in a new conference and committed to recall their products

Thus, Teleology or Consequentialism in the other hand it’s a result oriented ethics, which people are focused on purpose of actions by examine past experience to find present actions (Fryer 2011).

 In Example of Teleology:

Wikileaks Case (Henriquez 2011)

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Wikileaks responsible for the release of more than half million of U.S. Army and State Department confidential documents, which made U.S. Politician request Julian Assange (Wikileaks Editor in Chief) to be arrested and even assassinated. However, Many journalist even the one who works for the U.S. Government agreed that Wikileaks are out of the bounds, Noam Chomsky an American Linguist and Philosopher said that:

“Someone who courageously carries out actions in defense of democratic rights deserves applause, not hysterical denunciation and punishment” (Miller 2016).

(P.S. here is an abstract example for both of the theory to help you understand it better)

et
(Traer, R 2007)

The need of Business Ethics

Responsible Businesses are the one which value and understand the importance of ethics, as it is understand their place as a legal organization, therefore they have to move towards responsible and ethical manner (Ataya 2016).

Business ethics principal start with the good governance of the organizational environments, regardless the person role, employee, director or even the business owner.

The Impact of Ethical Business

Business ethics are one of the most important key elements to ensure the business growth and longevity, Organization in which successfully endorse the “good governance” and develop an ethical culture are dignified with excellent reputation, also guest and worker satisfaction.  Business ethics may set a good ripple in the business and may create a healthier relationship with client where they become more loyal and employee may become more motivated and effective in working (Ataya 2016).

https://youtu.be/X4W0933uFIE

  • Example of ethical Business Leader

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Coming From a hotelier background, I found that one of the real example of ethical leader is my previous Director of Rooms, from one of the luxury 5 stars’ hotel In Jakarta – Indonesia, Mr. Yana Nugraha. He simply set him-self as a great role model for everyone in the Rooms Department through his leadership methods and decision.

One time, the General Manager (GM) and Hotel Manager (HM) we’re doing a room inspection and both of them, wasn’t really happy figured that there’s a dash of dust in the back of 2Meters rain shower head.The findings then create a various pressure from the Board of Directors (BOD), in which demand him to cut some staff from the team, in while keep exaggerating few staff’s minor mistakes.

Mr. Nugraha, then in one of the meeting brought back the case and told us what the reaction in which he gave them as our learning examples, to remind us to stay true to our self and company genuine value, and always brave to defends it, once you know that you are right, …“This people in my department has shown a great contribution and commitment to our hotel, by being and doing the best they can, after the company cut down the employment budget and jeopardizing the manning quantity, while increasing their working burden and working hours without any payment compensation, now I will trying my very best to defend my best interest, in which my staff well-being and fight against the company wrong doing”  He is also explained that the result of company unethical decision, are the core of the problem, in which resulting to staffs exhaustion, and contribute to their lack of work motivation and concentration

Mr. Nugraha has set a great mind set and a great leadership track record in between all of his staff and improving our trust to the company and our fore ground to remain ethical even in the toughest condition.

Conclusion

Lastly, it doesn’t take too much to be an ethical leader or to direct the business towards ethical ways. Therefore, one should stays true to their principles and values, and build courage to do things in a manner of morality, and those acts may drive their company and them self to a higher ground of dignity and success.

REFERENCE

Ataya, L. (2016) How To Be An Ethical Leader [Online] Available from: < https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/272746>%5B6 February 2016]

Bachmann, B. (2017) Ethical Leadership in Organizational. 1st edn. Zurich: Springer

TedxTalks (2012) Creating Ethical Cultures in Business [Online] Available from: < https://youtu.be/wzicXbnmllc?t=31s&gt; [6 February 2016]

Traer, R. (2007) Ehical Traditions [Online] Available from: <thttp://doingethics.com/DEE/dee%20ch1/ethical.traditions.htm>

 

[6 February 2016]

Fryer, M. (2011) Ethics and Organizational Leadership [Online] Available from: <http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590186.001.0001/acprof-9780199590186-chapter-3&gt; [6 February 2016]

Hunt, S.D. and Vitell, S.J., 2006. The general theory of marketing ethics: A revision and three questions. Journal of Macromarketing26(2), pp.143-153.

LVB (2013) <http://www.lvb.com/article/20130513/LVB01/305109989/top-risks-and-costs-of-unethical-behavior-in-business-conduct&gt;

Mendonca M. and Kanugo, R.N. (2007) Ethical Leadership. Maidenhead, Berkshire: McGraw Hill Education

Miller, N. (2016) Wikileaks Founder Julian Assange Wins Unlawful Detention Case [Online] Available from: <http://www.stuff.co.nz/world/europe/76592475/wikileaks-founder-julian-assange-wins-unlawful-detention-case–reports&gt; [11 February 2016]

Reuters (2010) Lawsuit Claims Toyata Ignored Safety Issues [Online] Available from: <http://www.reuters.com/article/us-toyota-lawsuit-idUSTRE67200K20100803&gt; [11 February 2016]

Vitell, S.J., Nwachukwu, S.L. and Barnes, J.H., (1993) The effects of culture on ethical decision-making: An application of Hofstede’s typologyJournal of Business Ethics12(10), pp.753-760.

Henriquez, J. (2011) Ten Arguments For And Against WikiLeaks [Online] Available from: < http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/10-things/10-arguments-for-and-against-wikileaks/ > [11 February 2016]

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